Sunday, June 21, 2015

Techno-politics in the Philippines

By Christopher Ryan Maboloc

      According to Herbert Marcuse, one of the accomplishments of modern society “is the non-terroristic, democratic decline of freedom – the efficient, smooth, reasonable un-freedom which seems to have its roots in technical progress itself.” By implication, Jeffry Ocay writes that it is worthwhile to examine closely how modern politics and its technology as an apparatus of power, to use the words of Mario Bunge, has been employed to “to control, transform or create things or processes, natural or social,” in order to achieve “some practical end deemed to be valuable.”

Monday, June 8, 2015

The Rohingya People and Our Common Sense of Humanity

by Christopher Ryan Maboloc

        Hungry at sea, without water or medical provisions, and pushed from territorial waters, the fate of thousands of Rohingyas fleeing Burma who are stranded in decrepit wooden boats, once again emphasizes that the claim that sovereignty above all else define for any country the meaning of justice. This discussion all brings us back to Hegel and Hobbes and what the meaning of an “imagined community” as coined by Benedict Anderson is all about. For Anderson, a nation is a politically constructed concept. It points to a perceived commonality and belief that people share in terms of their identities which determine for them the very terms of their association – social, political and economic. Self-realization, in this respect, depends on a set of values that citizens in an associative relation share with each other. National solidarity, which dictates how people frame national and foreign policies, is grounded on those things that we think we owe only to our fellow citizens.

Sunday, March 8, 2015

Peace and Justice in the Bangsamoro (A Religious/Catholic Perspective)

By Fr. Urbano Pardillo Jr.
Dean of Studies
St. Francis Xavier College Seminary

The issue of the Bangsamoro Basic Law has been the topic of various fora and debates in many social groups and institutions including the Catholic Church in the Philippines. This is the reason why the catholic leaders especially the Bishops issued a Pastoral statement to guide its members regarding its position on the issue.  My task this afternoon is to present the religious and catholic perspective on the issues pertaining the BBL coupled with some reflections as a Christian philosopher.

Thursday, March 5, 2015

Colonization and the Bangsa Moro Struggle and Call for Peace

by Atty. Jamil Matalam

What I offer here is only a perspective or frame concerning the political issues involving and surrounding the Bangsa Moro. It is no political position, although it is my position that only democratic or political solutions are really possible. I point out here the urgency of peace to deter the outbreak of a possible catastrophic violence or war.

Saturday, January 3, 2015

Political Corruption, Business and Reform (Part II)

By Cristian Ramirez
University of Mindanao


The Greek philosopher Thales is remembered for his cosmology, in which water forms the basic material principle of an orderly universe. Over the course of time, it was Anaximenes who said that the essential element for the universe is air. Many other pre-Socratics declare the inconsistencies of these thinkers and created their own. Until such time that Empedocles proclaims that the universe is made up of four fundamental elements namely, the earth, air, fire and water.  Thus far the discovery of atoms by Democritus and Leucippus led to the new conception of the origin of universe. Now we rely heavily on what is said by the famous thinkers about the world. When Newton said that in every action, there is always an equal but opposite reaction, we tend to wait for a reaction as a consequence to the action we’ve done prior. When Pascal said that love has its own reasons in which reason itself does not understand, well, we don’t try to understand love, we just feel it as we cannot know what reasons it has to take.

Sunday, May 5, 2013

Discussion on Philippine Political Culture

By Joharel Escobia
Urios University

Brief Background

The discussion began with A/Prof. Ryan Maboloc giving a passionate lecture on the history of elitism in the Philippines. He mentioned that after Spain relinquished the Philippines as a colony, the Americans instituted its brand of democracy. It was during this period, he said, that political elitism came into total fruition as lands that were acquired by the friars were simply transferred to families who have been very supportive of the American regime. This fact, he said, citing the work of Prof. Joel Rocamora, gave rise to many, if not all, political elites in the provinces, who in turn, supported most oligarchs in the capital Manila.

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Political Corruption, Business and Reform (Part I)

By Christian Lee R. Ramirez
University of Mindanao

I spoiled myself earlier this week to reading materials so as to help realizing this paper, and when I read a tale about the issue, I could not stop convincing myself from putting this tale here: at the height of a political corruption trial, the prosecuting attorney attacked a witness: “Isn’t it true,” he bellowed, “that you accepted one million pesos to compromise this case?” The witness stared out the window, as though he hadn’t heard the question. “Isn’t it true that you accepted one million pesos to compromise this case?” the lawyer repeated. The witness still did not respond. Finally, the judge leaned over and said, “Sir, please answer the question.” “Oh,” the startled witness said, “I thought he was talking to you.”

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

The Price of Freedom

By Ryan Maboloc
Ateneo de Davao University

The headline reads, “Over 300 dead in bloodiest day of Syria conflict”. The message is clear, without any form of intervention, there will be more killings and thousands more in Syria. The United Nations has remained ineffectual in securing the safety of civilian lives. The empire of America is busy with its domestic elections, and more than anything else, the issue that the US electorate is more concerned with is “jobs, jobs, jobs”. In theory, any sitting US President can choose to begin, or end any war. But the body count will continue, for the United Nations is effectively debilitated with the reluctance of Russia and China to cooperate. Syria simply is a hopeless case. Add to this problem a man named Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his constant vitriolic attacks on the Jewish world and Israel’s threat of a pre-emptive strike on Iran, then you certainly have a recipe for a new world order – the end of the world.

Sunday, July 1, 2012

Instituting Grassroots Moral Leadership

Dr. Romulo G.Bautista, Ph.D.
Social Ethics Society


Philosophy teachers from various schools in Mindanao have organized themselves into a Social Ethics Society, in order to help solve and/or bring the moral aspect of socio-political-economic problems for solution to political leaders of Mindanao. The Social Ethics Society laments the fact that the elite leadership of democracy in Mindanao has not done enough to improve the socio-economic fortune of the poor in the rural and in the urban areas. In terms of real income, the poor are even poorer today than they were in previous years.

Monday, April 9, 2012

Poverty and Population: a critique on Garret Hardin’s Lifeboat Ethics (Part II)

By Peter Elicor
Ateneo de Davao University

The Philippines, on the other hand, is dependent on the world market when it comes to the importation of oil. That’s why we are always at the mercy of the constant change of oil prices which directly affects the economic flow in the country. Yet, one may ask: aside from oil, are there other alternatives to it? Yes. But apparently, any effort to develop a technology that does not depend on oil does not succeed for many reasons. Daniel Dingel, for instance, is a Filipino inventor who has tried to invent a water-powered car ( But, this again begs the question, why such a brilliant invention did not shocked the world by its seemingly cheap and eco-friendly vehicle? I am of the opinion that natural resources are abundant. The idea that mother earth is deteriorating is only a tool to shape and control public opinion.

Poverty and Population: a critique on Garret Hardin’s Lifeboat Ethics (Part I)

By Peter Elicor
Ateneo de Davao University


Poverty is as old as humanity. Generally, it is defined as a state of a person whereby his/her income falls below some minimum level necessary to meet his/her basic needs ( On a macro level, a country is basically considered poor when the population which falls under the poverty line outnumbers those who are above it. In a more concrete sense, economic poverty is present when there is hunger, lack of basic needs and commodities, high mortality rate due to the lack of such needs (viz. medical services and food), high rate of unemployment and social unrest.

From Quest to Conquest of Impossible

Dr. Romulo G. Bautista
Social Ethics Society
Executive Director, DEVSTRAT

“Failure is a great teacher”

Many great teachers succeed because they are not afraid to fail greatly. Paradoxically, they fear greatly to fail, but such fear fuels their determination to succeed in their quest of success.

In our quest of success, we should and must distinguish “what is intrinsically impossible” from “what is seemingly impossible”. This paper is about “seemingly Impossible” To make a “square circle” is intrinsically impossible because you make a square which is not a square because it is a circle at the same time, but to reach “the unreachable star” is seemingly impossible because such quest does not involve inherent contradiction. In the latter sense, we can believe in the lyrics of the popular song entitled “Impossible Dream”:

Sunday, April 1, 2012

Protest through Social Media

Dr. Romulo G. Bautista, Ph.D.
Social Ethics Society

Social Ethics Society for Social Protest and Social Justice

If you witness a crime against humanity or nature, should you be compelled to take action or simply redirect your attention and pretend nothing is happening? If you do such thing, would you not become an accessory to the crime through your own inaction? Would you not lose your soul a little bit and over time become disempowered and disenfranchised?

Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Moral and Ethical Leadership of Philosophy Professors beyond the Classroom (PART II)

Dr. Romulo G. Bautista
Ethical Development Strategies Phil Inc

Quasi-Religious/Quasi-Secular Ethics maybe described as a hybrid of religious and of secular ethics, a middle ground between the religious and the secular ethics. In other words, a “quasi” ethics is in part secular, in part religious. As such, its middle ground is not exactly the center or equidistant to both extremes; rather the middle ground maybe leaning more toward religion (right-of-center) or leaning more toward autonomy (left-of-center). If it leans more toward religion, then it either leans more toward a religious ethics or more toward an anti-religious ethics. It must be stressed, though, that both the religious ethics and the anti-religious ethics recognized and acknowledge the existence of God, but they have opposing beliefs about the essence of God. For instance, the religious ethics might say “God exists and He is a great provider”; while the anti-religious ethics might say “God exists but He is not a great provider”. Their respective propositions serve as the basis of their commitment or non-commitment to God and His commands, which affect the choice of ethical code of moral behavior.

Moral and Ethical Leadership of Philosophy Professors beyond the Classroom (PART I)

Dr. Romulo G. Bautista
Ethical Development Strategies Phil Inc

Subtle Distinction between “Moral” & “Ethical””

What is “moral” is always “ethical”, but what is “ethical” is not necessarily “moral”. “Moral” and “ethical” are similar in that both have to do with the difference between right and wrong. But they are also dissimilar in that “ethical” tends to refer to a system, theory, or code of judging rightness or wrongness; whereas “moral” tends to refer to more concrete choices and issues that arouse strong feelings. We might say that “ethical” refers to right and wrong”, while “moral” refers to good and evil. Thus, for example, the behavior of a professor who plagiarizes a writing of another professor without acknowledging the latter as the original author is unethical because it violates the code of ethics against plagiarism; but a military official who orders the mass killing of innocent people, such as the so-called Maguindanao massacre, would be called immoral because it violate morality.

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

"The Apology" and the Impeachment of the Chief Justice

By Jamil Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

After asking students to read Plato’s “The Apology of Socrates” Allan Bloom asks his students what are their verdict; do they acquit or convict Socrates? The question is important because in the Dialogue Socrates was talking to his judges and was not talking about philosophical concepts; Socrates wanted to be judged upon. The great philosopher provided us the method to judge him, i.e. by the method of “truth”. The impeachment of Chief Justice Corona gives us a good opportunity to revisit this most enigmatic Dialogue by Plato.

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Can there be permanent peace in Mindanao?

By Romulo G. Bautista, Ph.D.


All sorts of professional experts, except perhaps the professional philosophers, have been asked to help resolve definitively the war in the conflict areas of Mindanao. It is about time that the professional philosophers in Mindanao should say their views to make a difference on the resolution and settlement on such conflict. I would like to share mine grounded in my modest philosophizing, which begins from my “philosophical” view of the Old Testament. This can be viewed and interpreted from various angles of the readers because they could never existentially transcend their subjectivity.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Beings like ideas do not make sense

By Armando Parantar
University of the Immaculate Conception

I have long contemplated on what to share in this gathering; the thoughts of astounding thinkers have enticed me to begin and proceed through others which have similar tenets and end with a grand finale most probably in the vein of Hegel. At one point I have resolved to stay suspended as if on air; I have no intention to stay on the grounds of any one philosopher if ever I may be found to sound like or echo the ideas of the likes of Heidegger. I don’t intend to speak for anyone of them. Why? I see them as (with respect to a few who have tried it) inutile and just as regular as you and me. At one time, I read about the paradox of modern life stating how human living has stretched the disparity between what should be and what is. I had once that thought that this only applied in politics and the secular and material lifestyles, but now I see that this also bodes true of Philosophy. We have a myriad of philosophical treatises and dissertations, theses in masters’ degrees, and countless term papers and reflections in many courses; libraries are in dire need of extensions to welcome newer books, or old books are burnt to create vacant shelves for newer ones, and more keep on coming.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

The Moral Phenomenon of Dialectic in Contemporary Filipino Society (PART II)

Dr. Romulo G.Bautista
Ethical Development Strategies Phil. Inc.

The Ethical Code of Morality for the Filipino in the 21st Century

Moral Philosophy is not monolithic, which means that there is no unquestioned and established ethical code of morality for every one to follow, because there is a subtle distinction between “moral” and “ethical”. Both “ethical” and “moral” are similar in meaning in that both have to do with the difference between right and wrong, in which case both can be used interchangeably. But they are dissimilar in that ethical tends to refer to a system or theory or code of judging rightness or wrongness, whereas moral tends to refer to more concrete choices and issues that arouse strong feelings:, in which case “ethical “ and “moral” should not be used inter-changeably. The behavior of unscrupulous student who cheats during exams would be unethical for it violates the school code against cheating; but a military officer who orders the mass killings of innocent people, such as the Maguindanao massacre, would be called immoral because his behavior violates morality.

The Moral Phenomenon of Dialectic in Contemporary Filipino Society (PART I)

Dr. Romulo G.Bautista
Ethical Development Strategies Phil. Inc.

Horrible Moral Phenomena in Contemporary Filipino Society

I have this text about a foreign investor who complains, saying that “I really have difficulty doing business here. Every one from Customs, BIR, Congressman, Governor, Mayor, Barangay, LTO, Register of Deeds and others,, always ask for a FEE. You should change your country’s name to ‘FEE-lippines, and call yourselves ‘FEE-lipinos’ and your president ‘FEE-noy’”. Now, “Fee” is the euphemism for Bribery. Bribery is the moral phenomenon of the dialectic between bribe-giver and bribe-taker. The text projects the impression that bribery is the ethical and moral norm of doing business in the Philippines. Alas! our nation has earned the perception that it is one of the top-most corrupt nations in Asia and in the world, where “private interests” normally prevails over “public interests”.

Sunday, September 4, 2011

The Wrong Assumptions in the GRP-MILF Negotiations

By Jamil Matalam, MA
Ateneo de Davao University

The peace talks concerning the insurgency problem in Mindanao always had the character of a negotiation. It is a matter of offer on the one side, a counter-offer on the other, and then impasse and then armed encounters. This has always been its character and will always be because the parties to the negotiations have their own non-negotiable matters to bring into the negotiations, those that cannot be compromised. No doubt it is doomed to failure, if the goal is peace; for peace, and the current events surrounding the issue tells us so, is not a matter of negotiations. Peace is about the truth and is real; it is not a matter of compromise or simply a result of agreement. Peace is not a matter of give and take but the truth.

Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Political Reform and Human Development

By Ryan Maboloc
Ateneo de Davao University

Why is the political party system in the Philippines weak? Why is it that the most Filipinos do not find these political parties instrumental to their well-being? What is the relation between political reform and human development? Why have we not created, for decades now, a mature democracy?

Thursday, June 30, 2011

On the Absence of Democracy in the ARMM

By Jamil Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

Today, 30 June 2011, the President of the Philippines signed the bill synchronizing the ARMM elections with that of the National Elections, i.e. postponing the August 2011 ARMM elections. From the reading of the President’s speech in signing the bill it would give us the impression that the primary intention for the bill is to pave way for reforms in the ARMM. I think reforming the ARMM is good and is a must. I take issue, however, with how the President, by passing, mentions how the undemocratic practice is happening in the region. He says:

Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Ideal of Civil Society, Poverty and Happiness

By Jamil Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

The ideal of a civil society—a society of rational exchanges of thoughts about social welfare and a government under the rule of law— is thought by many to have much of its origins in the Western civilization. It presupposes two intrinsically related things: “free citizens”, those that are not in bondage of slavery; and a democratic regime. They have to be citizens because the idea of a right is involved, i.e., as a member of the society they have loyalty and have concern about the life of the community and society. They have to be free because they do not represent the interests of their “masters” but the welfare of all, a sense of neutrality and retreat.

Thursday, March 3, 2011

The Weakening of Academic Freedom in the University

Dr. Romulo Bautista
DEVSTRAT Consultant

The questions I raise are how to liberate the individuals from the pressures of an organizational university and how to provide some measure of participatory democracy within such organization. These questions are basic for humanistic ethics that claim to be responsive to human needs.

This essay seeks the ground of the ‘rejection of the value of academic freedom’ in those universities. It proceeds from the premise that the university is an organization, and as such, it has “organization personality”, in other word, an “organiza-lity” (a synergy of “organization” and “personality”).

A Philosophy of Protest

Dr. Romulo Bautista
DEVSTRAT Consultant

Humankind’s essential nature entails its relation to God, the infinite. Its existential condition is a consequence of its alienation from God. This is why it is not of any help to lose oneself in a crowd or collectivity of whatever nature. Being in a crowd unmakes one’s nature as an individual by diluting the self; it renders the individual irresponsible.

Tuesday, February 8, 2011

On Human Rights Culture (PART II)

Mr. Joefer Maninang
University of Mindanao

Rorty’s pragmatic stance on human rights, on the other hand, conceives the human being as “a centreless web of historically conditioned beliefs and desires” and from this conception we follow Rorty’s assumption of the existence of the human rights culture. Historically conditioned by the Holocaust, the human rights culture expresses the common ‘beliefs and desires’ of some of us which is basically the respect for human rights. But beside this culture are other cultures that have their own beliefs and desires that do not respect human rights. People who belong in these cultures are the human rights violators. For Rorty, violators have to be integrated in the human rights culture and the efficient way to do it is through sentimentalism.

On Human Rights Culture (PART I)

Mr. Joefer Maninang
University of Mindanao

In his celebrated essay Human Rights, Rationality, and Sentimentality American philosopher Richard Mckay Rorty (1931-2007) uses a pragmatic approach to the subject of human rights. He claims that what really make people respect or deny human rights are their life circumstances . In attempting to elucidate this claim, I wish to accomplish three (3) things in this article: firstly, I will present a hopefully fair Rortian conception of human rights to introduce the culture of impunity as our indifferent, apathetic, and passive sort of response to the culture of the death squad. Secondly, I will try to demonstrate sentimentalism through the definite meaning of sympathy vis-à-vis security or the life circumstances which make us respect or deny human rights. Thirdly and finally, I will conclude by stressing sentimentalism as the practical or perhaps the only way of addressing the problem of human rights violations.

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

On Universal Primary Education in the Philippines

By Romulo Bautista, Ph.D
Devstrat Consultant

Given the premise that the child of pre-school age has the basic right to “quality education” as tool toward his eventual “total human liberation and development” which is his insurance to self-preservation, the fundamental questions are raised “Where does education begin and where does it end?”

Wednesday, January 5, 2011

The Advent of Mass Media

Mr. Joefer Maninang
University of Mindanao

The advent of mass media, the rapid development of the means of communication coupled with the advances of information technology, led to the growing awareness of its message, the reality of human struggle and suffering. It began a cultural transformation of the society as people identity themselves towards this alienating reality. It has converted many a people’s stance from being passive into being responsive citizens of the world towards this reality. It unifies men beyond borders.

Monday, January 3, 2011

The Phenomenon of Climate Change

By Dr. Romulo Bautista
Chief Consultant,
Ethical Development Strategies Philippines, Inc.

Climate change has become a global concern because of its threat to the very existence of humankind.

The threat comes from global warming caused by gas emissions that originate from the burning of fossil fuels in many highly industrialized countries, notably the so-called Group of 7 led by USA and the so-called BRIC Group (Brazil, Russia, India & China); as well as from other forms of environmental destruction (e.g. rampant deforestation) due to lack of stricter environmental standards and/or lack of firmer enforcement of stricter environmental standards in poor countries of the third world.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

It is not easy to kill a King

by Jamil Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

P-Noy’s first Executive Order has no other aim but to make the former President accountable for suspected corrupt practices—the hello Garci, fertilizer scam, NBN-ZTE controversy and the Ampatuan massacre. The new administration would want us to believe that it won’t tolerate any misdeeds. It shall make things straight in the government dealings and bring to justice the oppressors. With these matters as motives, P-Noy created his first Knight—the Truth Commission—to investigate on the alleged law infractions of the former President of the past 10 years.

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Poor Justice

by Jamil Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

The Supreme Court of the land is accused of plagiarism by the UP Law professors. It is heartbreaking that a high court, reposed with great respect and fidelity is accused of no less than cheating its way out of a problem. The worst is that this problem is not merely academic but a problem of real justice. If it be true that there was plagiarism, then we may say that the High Court cheated its way out of a problem involving justice, justice demanded by Filipino comfort women.

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

De-Colonization, Subsidiarity and Human Dignity

By Jamil Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

Ryan Maboloc, in his recent political article, mentions as problems of Philippine politics the lack of human dignity in Philippine society and the lack of the principle of subsidiarity in the government. The former, he means that lack of recognition of the dignity of a fellow human person; and as a consequence the lack of care for their welfare. In lieu, he advances what he refers to as a centrist principle, whereby he means that political policies should not simply cater to the interest of the few rich, but above all everybody, especially the poor. The latter, he means the lack of recognition of the capabilities of small governmental units for chartering their welfare; a sort of autonomy. These problems tell us of the totalitarian or imperialistic tendencies of our government. Maboloc is trying to suggest that we democratize our institutions based on the said principles, together with the idea of a strong state.

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

What is wrong with Politics in the Philippines?

By Ryan Maboloc
Ateneo de Davao University

Philippine society is ruled by political clans. While political parties present their principles in public, there is no clear direction as to how these principles are fundamentally practiced. The ultimate point there being is power. Power is above all. But this power is not meant for the common good. The reason is that many politicians hold public office based on purely material and utilitarian grounds.

Thursday, August 7, 2008

Why for the Moros...

By Jamil Adrian Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

The decades-long war in the Bangsa Moro has now reached a point that is probably near its end—thank God. The Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, it seems, would have a final peace agreement with the emergence of the Bangsamoro Juridical Entity (BJE). Yet many Filipino politicians, it would seem, are against it. They oppose it because it would be like surrendering Philippine sovereignty over a portion of Mindanao with the MILF or the Moros. Some of them say it is like carving out a portion of the Philippines. To this I say NONSENSE!

Sunday, May 4, 2008

Justice by holdings

by Aimee Mesiona
ADDU Graduate Student

Justice by holdings is a response to the concept of distributive justice. Nozick argues that “distributive” justice seems to assume that there should be some agent greater than the individuals within society that decides how primary goods should be allocated among its citizens. In a truly democratic situation, the reality is that individuals have control over varied resources, and it is through voluntary acts and exchanges of goods that new holdings arise. Every person is entitled to decide for himself which goods to keep, to acquire or to exchange. One can do whatever he or she wants to do with his or her possessions.

Sunday, April 27, 2008

The Measure of Democracy

by Ryan Maboloc
Ateneo de Davao University

World poverty, politics, and democracy are matters we discuss during dinner in our corridor. This text will be about democracy. But whether there is still hope in our land is another issue. Here, we are just reflecting on what can be done. Before anything else, let me provide some data and a little analysis. The inputs from my colleagues are religiously incorporated in the text.

Friday, April 18, 2008

The Other's Suffering

by Jamil Adrian Matalam
Ateneo de Davao University

I am no advocate of homosexuality. I even hate homosexual acts. But what I hate most are people who disregard the dignity of their fellow human beings, and are unmindful their sufferings. The doctors at the Vicente Sotto hospital, in Cebu , who operated on a suffering homosexual have no right whatsoever to that person’s suffering a laughable matter. It is good to laugh a lot in life, but I do not think it is good if the subject of our laughter is that of a person’s pain. He came there looking for help and remedy and not to be laughed at and be disgraced. What is more outrageous, as if a finishing touch, is that they uploaded it in youtube so that the rest of the world could see the operation.

Tuesday, April 15, 2008

The Enterpreneur and the Laborer

by Eugim Migue
ADDU Graduate Student

The second part of the principle of justice according to John Rawls is concerned with the distribution of income and wealth and the design of public institutions. It deals with the task of opening offices and opportunities to all social ranks and classes; though not necessarily actually giving persons all opportunities, but giving them expectations and prospects for a more advantageous and fortunate circumstance through the design of the social structure. The second principle, further, allows, and does not restrict, inequalities to happen but on the condition that “everyone benefits” to such a designed inequality.